EPC stands for Engineering, Procurement, Construction and is an important form of taking contract agreement in the industry of construction. The engineering and construction contractor will execute the detailed engineering design of the project, procure all the equipment and materials essential, and then construct to deliver a functioning facility or asset to their clients. Companies that deliver EPC Projects are usually referred to as EPC Contractors. We are a leading technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing services company, with PAN India operations. Surging ahead with the presence in multiple sectors and involvement in revolutionary projects, Abhiyaan Infra provides one-stop Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing and Solar solutions and Project Management Consultancy.
Although the solar is made up of a variety of suite of technologies, there are three main types, including photovoltaics (PV), solar heating & cooling (SHC), and concentrating solar power (CSP). The first two are the primary choices of Homeowners and businesses interested, while utilities and large-scale energy project developers primarily utilize the latter.
Electricity is directly generated from sunlight by the use of PV panels, while thermal (heat) energy is used by SHC technology to change the temperature of water and air. PV panels use an inverter to change the direct current (DC) power they generate to utilizable alternating current (AC) power and they have no moving parts. SHC technologies are often used to heat water for commercial or domestic use, but can be used to cool down or heat up the air in buildings as well. Most concentrating solar power systems use concentrated sunlight to drive a steam turbine that creates electricity on a large scale. There are also concentrating solar technologies that utilize the photovoltaic technology to generate electricity without a thermal process.
The most commonly used solar cells nowadays are the Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. They are widely used solar cells currently because c-Si is stable; it delivers efficiencies in the range of 15% to 25%. It depends on established process technologies with a prodigious database, and, in general, it has proven to be reliable. But the drawback with c-Si is that it is a poor absorber of light and, what might be a big limitation in this micro-miniature age, it needs to be fairly thick and rigid.
Crystalline silicon wafers are not exactly inexpensive even in the form of scrap, on the basis of the efficiency levels they achieve. The enter thin-film solar cells are potentially cheaper than traditional panels but less efficient, in the realm of 20% to 30% of light-to-voltage conversion.
Typical thin-film solar cells are one of four types depending on the material used: amorphous silicon (a-Si) and thin-film silicon (TF-Si); cadmium telluride (CdTe); copper indium gallium diselenide (CIS or CIGS); and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) plus other organic materials.
C-Si technology has been in use for a while and has proven its value and mettle, while the thin film is still emerging from its infancy but has the potential to be remarkably less expensive and at least comparable in efficiency and reliability.
A high-efficiency rate of about 12% to 24.2%, high stability, ease of fabrication, and high reliability are some of the major benefits of c-Si cells. Longevity adds one more feature; c-Si modules deployed in the 1970s are still in operation, and single crystal panels can withstand the harsh conditions associated with space travel. Other benefits include high resistance to heat and lower installation costs. And, silicon is more environmentally friendly come disposal/recycling time.
On the downside, c-Si cells are the most expensive solar components in terms of opening cost. Also, they have a low absorption coefficient and are rigid and fairly fragile.
On the other hand, thin-film solar cells are less expensive than older c-Si wafer cells. They are more flexible and easier to handle and are also available in thin wafer sheets. They’re also less susceptible to damage than their silicon rivals.
The lower efficiency is the biggest disadvantage of thin-film solar components. This disadvantage in some applications can also offset its price advantage. They also possess a more complex structure. Unique installation skills are needed for its flexible versions.
Around 4.5-5 acres of land is required for 1 MW power plant setup for crystalline technology and around 6.5-7.5 acres for Thin-Film technology. This is only a rough standard and may vary based on technology and efficiency of panels.
25 years is the usual life of a typical Solar Power Plant. This is the duration for which long-term PPAs are signed and financial models are built. However, Solar Power plants can run beyond 25 years while producing a lower output. Many Solar Panel manufacturers guarantee an output of 90% at the end of 10 years and 80% at the end of 25 years.
Complete EPC of Some of the Balance of Plant Packages
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